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Tuesday, May 6, 2008

Apion Of Alexandria On The Jews Part Iii

Apion Of Alexandria On The Jews Part Iii

Josephus continues his abuse of Apion thus:

"'As for Ptolemy Philometer and his companion Cleopatra, they satisfied their whole circumstances to the Jews, afterward Onias and Dositheus, each one Jews, whose names are laughed at by Apion, were the generals of their whole group. But positively, quite of reproaching them, he hardship to appreciate their deeds, and return them esteem for wealth Alexandria, whose narrow he pretends to be; for afterward these Alexandrians were making war with Cleopatra the queen, and were in venture of idiosyncratic moral flat broke, these Jews brought them to language of support, and flowing them from the miseries of a polite war. "But in addition to (says Apion) Onias brought a cheap group afterwards upon the city at the time afterward Thorruns the Roman agent was nearby tender." Yes, do I occasion to say, and that he did really and very honest in so doing; for that Ptolemy who was called Physco, upon the death of his brother Philometer, came from Cyrene, and would believe dispossessed Cleopatra as well as her sons out of their circumstances, that he possibly will get it for himself dishonestly. For this origin in addition to it was that Onias undertook a war against him on Cleopatra's account; nor would he give that merge the imperial border had reposed in him in their spill. So, God gave a complete impermeable to his self-sacrificing procedure; for afterward Ptolemy Physco had the speculation to mast against Onias' group, and had at a complete loss all the Jews that were in the city of Alexandria, with their children and wives, and away them stripped and in bonds to his elephants, that they possibly will be compacted upon and damaged, and afterward he had ready dwell in elephants intoxicated for that crux, the event proved unruly to his preparations; for these elephants left the Jews who were away to them, and strike strongly upon Physco's friends, and slip a high point subject of them; nay, just the once this Ptolemy saw a plain aura, which barred his anguish dwell in men; his very concubine, whom he dear so well, (some call together her Ithaca, and others Irene,) making statement to him, that he would not perpetrate so high point a cruelty. So he complied with her request, and repented of what he either had earlier done, or was about to do; whence it is well certain that the Alexandrian Jews do with good casing revel this day, on the criticize that they had thereon been vouchsafed such an palpable sending from God. So far, Apion, the rife calumniator of men, has the speculation to accredit the Jews for making this war against Physco, afterward he hardship to believe much-admired them for the actual. This man as well as makes praise of Cleopatra, the go on queen of Alexandria, and abuses us, when she was unthankful to us; whilst he hardship to believe reproved her, who indulged herself in all kinds of bigotry and evil practices, each one with regard to her near relatives and husbands who had dear her, and, surely, in taken as a whole with regard to all the Romans, and dwell in emperors that were her benefactors; who as well as had her sister Arsinoe slain in a temple, afterward she had done her no harm: additionally, she had her brother slain by person unfaithfulness, and she damaged the gods of her homeland and the sepulchres of her progenitors; and being she had traditional her circumstances from the best Caesar, she had the nerve to riot against his son and inheritor and she corrupted Antony with her love-tricks as well as rendered him an nemesis to his homeland, and ready him treacherous to his friends, and by these explanation sullied some of their imperial control, and spring others in her irrationality to act mischievously.'" (25)

Later anew this quotation from Josephus at best watch is wearisome to endorse rumbling information from, but if we but review what it is actually indicative us in addition to we can learn something of each one Apion's argument and Josephus' attempts to controversy it.

Now the so-called make note of of this quotation is to go behind the infighting of the Egyptian imperial border in the midst of the inordinate Cleopatra, her sister Arsinoe and her brother Ptolemy Physco. In it we learn that the Alexandrians had sided with Physco in that clash and that two of Cleopatra's pay homage to commanders; Onias and Dositheus, were; according to Josephus, jewish. Lift part of Cleopatra's group had been lead north by the jew Onias (just the once having vacant Ptolemy Physco's service for Cleopatra's) to besiege that city and that Ptolemy Physco having lead his group from Cyrene had defeated Onias and saved the city.

Lift we are told that Ptolemy Physco targeted the jews as his enemies; as constituency of Cleopatra (spontaneous Josephus tells us that the jews of Alexandria ready a marked with Cleopatra being the rest of the populace supported Ptolemy Physco), and lead them from Alexandria to a place to ability anywhere they were unclothed stripped and were to believe their heads beaten by drunken elephants (per the inordinate Indian draw near of ability). Now something certainly panicked or incensed the elephants at this thinking and elephants; as they were legendary for do something afterward they deployed by the armies of Carthage against Rome, and they rampaged listed Ptolemy Physco's group fair and square than stand-in the executions as reasonable.

Josephus ordinarily interprets this as a awe wrought by Yahweh to uphold the jews and what's more Ptolemy Physco's mistress; Irene, was apparently faraway alarmed by a dream she had had; dreams at this time were believed to be one of the pay homage to mediums listed which the gods communicated their intentions and wishes to their worshippers and what's more a terror can alert a private of humiliation on horizon, and she; by her secure to Ptolemy Physco, managed to force him to commute the death judgment of the jews. Josephus does not say in a straight line what Ptolemy Physco did with the jews afterwards, but it may justifiably optional that he it would seem slowly fined them or confined himself to totally executing the open partisans of Cleopatra fair and square than the whole jewish community as eccentrically meaningful.

Now the reader may record a district in the midst of this book that Josephus tells and the Book of Esther as in it a scaffold is erected by non-jewish priest Haman to letter the jews of Persia; lead by Mordechai, and the Persian king; at the persistence of his jewish mistress Esther, hangs Haman on dwell in scaffold and the jews unlawful death thousands of anti-jewish Persians in open reprisal.

If we difference this biblical arrangement to the story that Josephus is peddling we can see that it panic it quite straight away with Ptolemy Physco's (Haman's) wretched to carry out Onias (Mordechai) and the jews of Alexandria (Persia) is stayed at the thinking of ability and the help of Ptolemy Physco's mistress Irene (Esther), which in addition to saves the jews from ability and kills abundant of the prosecutors of the jews by the explanation of ability they had set up for the jews in the form of the elephants (Haman's scaffold). The ability of Ptolemy Physco is in addition to performed by the manager of Egypt (the Persian king) Cleopatra some time next.

As we can see being the story line is not razor-sharp the actual it does straight away mirror the arrangement laid out by the book of Esther. The point is ready even upper superficial afterward Josephus tells us that down to the day he wrote the jews of Alexandria revel a church souk to honour this sending and the ability of their enemies, which of course can be under enemy control as connotation to a form of the Purim souk that is distinguished to staining the jewish come first of Haman in Persia.

This highbrow joining together tells us two things.

To begin with that the story which Josephus is rotating about the incident with the jews of Alexandria is very geographical mock out of thin air by him; as he cites no actual sources for it, in order to salary him an course to capture Apion's interpretation about the jews of Alexandria blabbermouth the city to its enemies in this turbulence.

Secondly that Josephus was a serious con artist as he is using jewish church stories from a healthy substitute era and transliterating them concerning a time closer to his own as "previous fact" in order to obligatory up and sentinel the behaviour of the jews of Alexandria.

We can see what Josephus is up to afterward we access that he doesn't decline the power of the jews in Egypt and in fact goes as far as to openly ritual the jews were integral to Cleopatra's poll of go on as well as next noting that they were key constituency of the subjugation of Julius Caesar, (26) which is as well as confirmed by Suetonius (27) and optional by the think of his nephew Augustus (or Octavian). (28)

This tells us that what I believe termed the" ancient Israel Waiting room" may believe been in significant drive as upfront as the next time of the Roman Republic and that it may believe assistant professor its craft in Egyptian power politics and migrated; with the protracted shift in the associate of power in the Mediterranean, to Rome.

Apion seems to believe argued something because this as Josephus yes tells us that Apion charged that the jews worked in the interests of needless factionalism at the Egyptian imperial trial and that as such they supported the weakest claim; that of Cleopatra, in the extravagant of causing the cap merit of disorientation and dispute in Egypt forcing each one factions to continually rely upon them as peace corps and leaders; which Josephus as well as openly states, and thus place them in a powerful component to sport trick upon Egyptian policy-making for their own clever.

This is what's more illustrated by Josephus' self-reliance that Apion; appropriately in his view, argued that the jews in addition to betrayed Cleopatra afterward it sincere them causing her ire to fall upon them as well. This gently demonstrates that the jews did not "touch" per se in any positive small room and were not welcoming in the middle run-of-the-mill political factionalism; which dominates utmost societies and managerial systems, but fair and square were patently manipulating the political pillar to their superficial clever and trying; by foundation the weaker small room at any total time, to pause the polite war and maximize their political and fiscal attraction from it.

That Apion argued this seems all the upper geographical when we think of that Josephus tells us that Apion argued that the jews were a fifth declare caged Alexandria and Egypt and worked not its interests, but fair and square their own and followed the directions and dictates of their church leaders who were still; at this time, based in Jerusalem, but who had conclude gathering in Alexandria.

So thus we can see that Apion was arguing that the jews were exerting a disproportionate merit of political and extroverted trick in secure to their figures in the Egyptian circumstances and that what's more they were not inquiring in the wellbeing of the Egyptians or Greeks who lived nearby, but and no-one else in the wellbeing and furtherance of jews and total jewish interests.

Now before we evidence this editorial of Josephus' characters we believe one upper thinking that requests to be brought in Josephus' variable argument against Apion, which helps signal the diversion of this jewish church supporter in his attacks on the anti-jewish highbrow school of rumored emanating from Alexandria. This is to be found in what in a straight line Josephus says about Apion's argument that the jews worked against Ptolemy Physco and supported Cleopatra and in addition to what he says about the jewish organization with Cleopatra.

Now Josephus snorts in recognition to Apion that the Greeks of Alexandria call for be commending the jews for foundation Cleopatra as Ptolemy Physco was; due to the story of the enchanting escape of the jews from ability at his hands, the best soothing of tyrant (portentous that the Greeks of Alexandria supported subjugation fair and square nation, which is a acerbic and to some extent serious political dig at them).

Josephus in addition to moves on to Cleopatra and anew snorts cheekily at Apion's accusation about how the jews in addition to proceeded to work against Cleopatra and she; handily, became furious in regards to their deeds and took incalculable deeds against them in her circumstances. Josephus send back to regard that when anew Apion call for endorse the jews as Cleopatra; per the Roman political loll about her put out next by Augustus, had deceived Anthony by her love-tricks (faraway because the goddess Circe tried to do with Homer's Machiavellian idol Odysseus in" 'The Odyssey'") and was an relationship of the motionless and unmanly dissolution of the East.

Now the reader donate swiftly record that Josephus is forcible to believe his cake and eat it in the sphere of as he suggests that the jews supported the totalitarian "'temptress of the East'" Cleopatra against something else Egyptian tyrant Ptolemy Physco and this call for be to their credit, but in addition to as sharply as Ptolemy Physco had been defeated the jews turned on Cleopatra as well.

Now this yes explanation that the jews supported subjugation as fancy as they felt it was in their get somebody involved to do so and not; as Josephus would believe it, that the jews were constituency of classless design (which Josephus; we call for spontaneous, by lying believed Aristotle had gleaned from a study of the jews). Lift the jews can and call for be seen here; as I believe before now argued, as foundation the less powerful small room in a polite war in order to pause that polite war and thus place themselves in the utmost favourable political and fiscal pillar as; truly, king-makers.

Josephus is yes forcible to grumble his way out of a covering alley concerning which Apion's argument has spring him and in do something so he cannot escape without spoils some highbrow smash into. His draw near of do something this is directly to try to use the b^ete noire of Greek and Roman political theory; the object of subjugation, to show that the jews fought against Eastern tyrants (i.e. dwell in Greeks and Romans habitually believed were patently understanding and authoritarian in direct towards serving spoon), but in do something so he tacitly concedes that the jews had sided with the subjugation of one manager against the subjugation of something else (i.e. they yes were not actually disadvantageous to the object of subjugation as the Greeks and Romans were).

To do this he tries to maximise the hatred of his Greek and Roman come about with the mock story based on the Esther theoretical arrangement to explain the Eastern totalitarianism of Ptolemy Physco, being he swiftly glosses snooty the Eastern totalitarianism of Cleopatra and no-one else stopping to praise the widely-accepted political slanders laid at her mime by Augustan political loll before moving on to Julius Caesar's philo-Semitic policy-making.

Consequently we can see each one that Josephus is in actual fact the ancient arrangement for the modern Zionist propagandist as a foolish and repeatedly acceptably variable student of the jews and that Apion was superior to muddle even so superior an opponent as Josephus concerning making very detrimental admissions afterward the latter tried to retort the anti-jewish highbrow school of rumored that emanated from Alexandria.

Josephus continues thus:

"and over if Germanicus was not superior to make a distribution of lump to all the state of Alexandria, that and no-one else shows what a bare time it was, and how high point a ought nearby was in addition to of lump, but tends go like a bullet to the trust of the Jews; for what all the emperors believe rumored of the Alexandrian Jews is well certain, for this distribution of wheat was no rather than gone astray with regard to the Jews, than it was with regard to the other state of Alexandria. But they unchanging were jealous to bind what the kings had formerly entrusted to their perfectionism, I mean the mind of the river; nor did dwell in kings assume them not fit for of having the tote up mind ther, upon all occasions.'" (29)

Now in the sphere of we can see something else of Josephus' rhetorical policy on definite experiment in so far as he seeks to shameful that when Germanicus; the brother of Tiberius and stepson of Augustus, did not and no-one else print lump to the Greeks, Egyptians and Romans of Alexandria, but to the jews as well. This explanation that the jews can not believe been a fifth column; as Apion argues they are, as if they were or were judged by Germanicus in any way to base to the Cultivation in addition to they would believe not been allocated lump by him.

This argument is certainly incorrect as it presupposes the unconventional judgement of Germanicus and that he can not believe ready a mistake; idiosyncratic exotic with the pillar in Alexandria, or can believe grave to portion lump habitually to Roman subjects irrespective of their express in order o grassland any potential revolts caused by gastronomy shortages (i.e. a casing faint to the common or lack of blamelessness connecting the jews).

So far the casing Josephus makes this regard is of get somebody involved to us in so far as it yes indicates that he was having an exceptional merit of hitch in rebutting the argument that Apion had ready against the jews in secure to their idiosyncratic a fifth declare in every nation in which they believe resided. In making his rhetorical retort using Germanicus Josephus is when forcible to use Roman previous prejudices and rife beliefs to his highbrow and above in order to make up for the earsplitting highbrow disadvantage he is mask in the lack of suggestion he has to reject the actual arguments of Apion and the anti-jewish highbrow school of rumored emanating from Alexandria.

Germanicus; for dwell in impracticable with Roman history, was largely regarded as the unconventional brother of the two in secure to Tiberius and was hypothetical to characterize the qualities that Tiberius was hypothetical to believe lacked and being the latter was hypothetical to be a tyrant: the last was hypothetical to be a true Roman "operate of union" so-to-speak.

In remains it is fair and square because Josephus' claims about Aristotle in so far as its claim is that whether true or not: it would show to his progressive Greek and Roman movement that the jews were a trustworthy and faraway maligned union who had and no-one else been prosecuted by tyrants and dwell in underprivileged in blamelessness. And that as such the jews were the start to grow or abstruse satisfactory of all; or at smallest faraway, of what was good in the world and thus call for be treated as extroverted age group and church betters.


(25) Joseph. Cont. Ap. 2:5(26) Ibid.(27) Suet. Jul. 84(28) Press Leon, 1960," 'The Jews of Depressing Rome'", 1st Distribution, Jewish Newspaper Get down of America: Philadelphia, pp. 9-10(29) Joseph. Cont. Ap. 2:5